From the Small to the Big and Back Again
Copyright (©) by James Dow Allen, 2021.

The purpose of this page is to help practice the prefixes of the metric system, Using two of the fundamental equations of physics, wavelength is made to correspond to (a photon's) energy, and to mass.
 3) Kilo / milli 6) Mega / micro 9) Giga / nano 12) Tera / pico 15) Peta / femto 18) Exa / atto 21) Zetta / zepto 24) Yotta / yocto 27) Ronna / ronto 30) Quecca / quecto

(Notes: (1) It may seem absurd to speak of photons with the extremely large or extremely small wavelengths shown here -- quecto-angstrom is a unit of length which makes no sense, let alone quecto-quecto-quecto-angstrom. These are just hypotheticals to bind the table together. (2) Dry Biomass is usually taken to be 1/5 of Biomass. (3) Precision should be treated as 1 sig-fig only.)

 Distance, Size Energy of Photon (λ = L)(Energy = E = hc / L) Mass Equiv of Photon (L, or wavelength of photon) (Mass = m = E / c2) 10^-100 m = quecto-quecto-quecto-angstrom 500 Kilo-QueccaQueccatons TNT equiv. 0.01 QueccaSun = 10^28 suns . 22 Quecca-Queccagrams 10^-99 m RonnaSun = 10^27 suns . 2.2 Yotta-Queccatonnes 10^-98 m 10^26 suns . . 10^-97 m = ronto-quecto-quecto-angstrom 10^25 suns . 22 Ronna-Queccagrams 10^-96 m 33 Quecca-Quecca-bbl petroleum YottaSun = 10^24 suns . Mass of total dark matter 10^-95 5 QueccaQueccatons TNT equiv. 220 Exa-Queccatonnes = 10^23 suns . Mass of observable universe (ordinary matter) 10^-94 m = yocto-quecto-quecto-angstrom 10^22 suns . ½ Mass of observable universe (NASA estimate) 10^-93 m 33 Ronna-Quecca-bbl petroleum ZettaSun = 10^21 suns . 2.2 Yotta-Queccagrams 10^-92 m 5 Ronna-Queccatons TNT equiv. 10^20 suns . 220 Zetta-Queccagrams 10^-91 m = zepto-quecto-quecto-angstrom 22 Peta-Queccatonnes = 10^19 suns . ½ Mass of Hercules-Corona Borealis Great Wall 10^-90 m 33 Yotta-Quecca-bbl petroleum ExaSun = 10^18 suns . Mass of Pisces-Cetus Supercluster Complex 10^-89 m 5 Yotta-Queccatons TNT equiv. 220 Tera-Queccatonnes = 10^17 suns . Mass of Laniakea Supercluster 10^-88 m = atto-quecto-quecto-angstrom 10^16 suns . 22 Exa-Queccagrams 10^-87 m 33 Zetta-Quecca-bbl petroleum PetaSun = 10^15 suns . Mass of Virgo Supercluster; or of supermassive galaxy 10^-86 m 5 Zetta-Queccatons TNT equiv. 220 Giga-Queccatonnes = 10^14 suns . Mass of IC1101 galaxy 10^-85 m = femto-quecto-quecto-angstrom 2 Quecca-QueccaJoules 22 Peta-Queccagrams = 10^13 suns . Mass of Galaxy Group 10^-84 m 33 Exa-Quecca-bbl petroleum TeraSun = 10^12 suns . Mass of Milky Way galaxy 10^-83 m 5 Exa-Queccatons TNT equiv. 220 Mega-Queccatonnes = 10^11 suns . ½ Mass of Milky Way's ordinary matter 10^-82 m = pico-quecto-quecto-angstrom 2 Ronna-QueccaJoules 10^10 suns . ½ Mass of largest known black hole 10^-81 m 200 Yotta-QueccaJoules33 Peta-Quecca-bbl petroleum GigaSun = Mass of 10^9 suns . 2.2 Tera-Queccagrams 10^-80 m 5 Peta-Queccatons TNT equiv. 220 Kilo-Queccatonnes = 10^8 suns . 4X Mass of Sagittarius Dwarf galaxy 10^-79 m = nano-quecto-quecto-angstrom ½ Energy of two massive black holes merging 22 Giga-Queccagrams = 10^7 suns . Mass of largest globular cluster 10^-78 m 2 Quecca-Quecca-ergs = 33 Tera-Quecca-bbl 2.2 Kilo-Queccatonnes = MegaSun = 10^6 suns . Mass of Tarantula Nebula or Gould Belt 10^-77 m 5 Tera-Queccatons TNT equiv. 220 Mega-Queccagrams = 10^5 suns . Mass of typical globular cluster 10^-76 m = micro-quecto-quecto-angstrom 2 Zetta-QueccaJoules 22 Queccatonnes = 10^4 suns . Mass of small globular cluster 10^-75 m 2 Ronna-Quecca-ergs = 33 Giga-Quecca-bbl Kilosun = 10^3 suns . Mass of Pleiades star cluster 10^-74 m 5 Giga-Queccatons TNT equiv. 220 Kilo-Queccagrams = 10^2 suns . Mass of Eta Carinae A 10^-73 m = milli-quecto-quecto-angstrom 2 Exa-QueccaJoules2X Energy of gravitational event LIGO-GW150914 22 Ronnatonnes = 10^1 suns . Mass of Canopus 10^-72 m 2 Yotta-Quecca-ergs = 33 Mega-Quecca-bbl 2.2 Kilo-Queccagrams = 10^0 sun . Mass of our Sun 10^-71 m 5 Mega-Queccatons TNT equiv. 30 Kilo-earths = 10^-1 sun . Mass of red dwarf star 10^-70 m = quecto-quecto-angstrom 2 Peta-QueccaJoulesEnergy of Hypernova explosion 22 Yottatonnes = 10^-2 suns . Mass of small brown dwarf star 10^-69 m Energy of Supernova explosion2 Zetta-Quecca-ergs 2.2 Queccagrams = milliSun = 10^-3 suns . Mass of Jupiter 10^-68 5 Kilo-Queccatons TNT equiv. 220 Ronnagrams = 10^-4 suns . 2X Mass of Uranus 10^-67 = ronto-quecto-angstrom 2 Tera-QueccaJoules 22 Zettatonnes = 10^-5 suns . 3X Mass of Earth 10^-66 m 2 Exa-Quecca-ergs33 Quecca-bbl petroleum microSun = 10^-6 suns . 3X Mass of Mars 10^-65 m 5 Queccatons TNT equiv. 220 Yottagrams = 10^-7 suns . Mass of Ganymede 10^-64 m = yocto-quecto-angstrom 2 Giga-QueccaJoules 22 Exatonnes = 10^-8 suns . Mass of Triton; or of Earth's crust 10^-63 m 2 Peta-Quecca-ergs33 Ronna-bbl petroleum 2.2 Yottagrams = nanoSun = 10^-9 suns . 2X Mass of Ceres 10^-62 5 Ronnatons TNT equiv. 220 Zettagrams = 10^-10 suns . Mass of Indian Ocean 10^-61 m = zepto-quecto-angstrom 2 Mega-QueccaJoules556 Quecca-watthours 22 Petatonnes = 10^-11 suns . Mass of Antarctic ice sheet; or of Asteroid 3 Juno 10^-60 m = quecto-quectometer 2 Tera-Quecca-ergs33 Yotta-bbl petroleum picoSun = 10^-12 suns . ½ Mass of Earth's atmosphere 10^-59 20 Kilo-QueccaJoules; 5 Yottatons TNT equiv.2X Energy output of Sun per year 220 Exagrams = 10^-13 suns . Mass of Prometheus (shepherd moon of Saturn) 10^-58 = atto-quecto-angstrom 2 Kilo-QueccaJoules; 556 Ronna-watthoursorbital Energy of Earth 22 Teratonnes = 10^-14 suns . Mass of water in Lake Baikal; Earth's Total Biomass (high estimate) 10^-57 m = ronto-quectometer 2 Giga-Quecca-ergs; 33 Zetta-bbl oiltotal Energy output of Sun per week 2.2 Exagrams = femtoSun = 10^-15 suns . Mass of water in Great Bear Lake; Earth's Total Biomass (low estimate) 10^-56 m 5 Zettatons TNT equiv.5.6 Ronna-watthours 220 Petagrams = 10^-16 suns . Mass of Mount Everest; ½ Dry Biomass of all plants 10^-55 = femto-quecto-angstrom 2 QueccaJoules556 Yotta-watthours Tablespoon of neutron star; 22 Gigatonnes = 10^-17 suns . Mass of all Earth's DNA; ⅓ Biomass of all fungi 10^-54 m = yocto-quectometer 2 Mega-Quecca-ergs; 33 Exa-bbl oilrotational Energy of Earth 2.2 Gigatonnes = attoSun = 10^-18 suns . Dry Biomass of all animals = ½ Mass of annual human food produced 10^-53 m 5 Exatons TNT equiv.5.6 Yotta-watthours 220 Teragrams = 10^-19 suns . ½ Biomass of all humans 10^-52 m = picoquecto-angstrom 2 RonnaJoules556 Zetta-watthours 22 Megatonnes = 10^-20 suns . ⅓ Concrete in Three Gorges Dam 10^-51 m = zepto-quectometer 2 Kilo-Quecca-ergs33 Peta-bbl petroleum zeptoSun = 10^-21 suns . ⅓ Mass of Great Pyramid 10^-50 m 5 Petatons TNT equiv.½ total Energy output of Sun per second 220 Kilotonnes = 2.2 X 10^11 grams . Mass of large container ship (DWT) 10^-49 m = nanoquecto-angstrom 2 YottaJoules; 556 Exa-watthours⅓ Energy of sunlight on Earth per year 22 Kilotonnes = 2.2 X 10^10 grams . ½ Mass of RMS Titanic 10^-48 m = atto-quectometer 2 Quecca-ergs33 Tera-bbl petroleum 2200 Tonnes = 2.2 X 10^9 grams . Mass of Saturn V rocket or Space Shuttle 10^-47 m 5 Teratons TNT equiv.5.6 Exa-watthours 220 Tonnes = 2.2 X 10^8 grams . Mass of largest blue whale 10^-46 m = microquecto-angstrom 2 ZettaJoules556 Peta-watthours 22 Tonnes = 2.2 X 10^7 grams . Mass of fire-truck 10^-45 m = femto-quectometer 33 Giga-bbl petroleumTotal P' Oil Consumed by world in Year 2019 2200 Kilograms = 2.2 X 10^6 grams . Mass of giraffe 10^-44 Total annual U.S. electricity consumption5 Gigatons TNT equiv. 220 Kilograms = 2.2 X 10^5 grams . Mass of male tiger, antelope or giant tortoise 10^-43 m = milliquecto-angstrom 2 ExaJoules = 330 Mega-bbl2X Krakatoa eruption 22 Kilograms = 2.2 X 10^4 grams . Mass of male bulldog or beaver 10^-42 m = pico-quectometer 50 Megatons TNT equiv.½ Energy spent annually mining Bitcoin 2.2 Kilograms = 2.2 X 10^3 grams . Mass of swamp rabbit or chihuahua dog 10^-41 5.6 Terawatthour = 3.3 Mega-bbl½ Energy of 8-Richter earthquake 220 grams = 2.2 X 10^2 grams . Mass of hamster 01^-40 m = quecto-angstrom 2 PetaJoules = 500 Kilotons TNTEnergy of typical storm 22 grams = 2.2 X 10^1 grams . Mass of field mouse 10^-39 m = nano-quectometer 3X Explosive Energy of Hiroshima bomb 2.2 grams = 2.2 X 10^0 grams . Mass of caterpillar 10^-38 m 5.6 Giga-watthour = 3.3 Kilo-bbl½ Energy of 6-Richter earthquake 220 milligrams = 2.2 X 10^-1 grams . Mass of raindrop 10^-37 m = ronto-angstrom 2 TeraJoules556 Mega-watthour 22 milligrams = 2.2 X 10^-2 grams . Mass of grain of rice or housefly 10^-36 m = micro-quectometer 200 GigaJoules; 50 tons of TNTfood Energy consumed during human life 2.2 milligrams = 2.2 X 10^-3 grams . Mass of sesame seed or small mosquito 10^-35 m = 10 micro-quectometer 5 tons of TNT equiv.3.3 barrels oil equiv 220 micrograms = 2.2 X 10^-4 grams ⅔ Planck Length Mass of poppy seed, fruitfly or standard LSD dose 10^-34 m = yocto-angstrom mass-Energy of smallest theoretical black hole 22 micrograms = 2.2 X 10^-5 grams Mass of fairyfly (smallest insect) 10^-33 m = milliquectometer 1.2 Ronna-eV = 200 MegaJoules 2.2 micrograms = 1.3 Exadaltons = 2.2 X 10^-6 grams . ½ Mass of human ovum, or of RDA Vitamin B12 10^-32 m 20 MegaJoules = 5.6 Kilo-watthour 220 nanograms = 2.2 X 10^-7 grams . Mass of grain of maize pollen 10^-31 m = zepto-angstrom 12 Yotta-eV = 20 Tera-ergs½ kinetic Energy of speeding car 22 nanograms = 2.2 X 10^-8 grams . Mass of megakaryocyte human cell 10^-30 m = quectometer 50 grams of TNT equiv. 2.2 nanograms = 1.3 Petadaltons = 2.2 X 10^-9 grams . Mass of typical human cell 10^-29 m 20 KiloJoules = 5 Calories (5 kcal.) 130 Teradaltons = 2.2 X 10^-10 grams . Mass of neutrophil (white blood cell) 10^-28 m = atto-angstrom 12 Zetta-eV = 20 Giga-ergskinetic Energy of M16 rifle bullet 22 picograms = 2.2 X 10^-11 grams . Mass of human sperm cell; ⅓ Mass of red blood cell 10^-27 m = rontometer Strongest 'cosmic ray' ever detectedEnergy of lethal X-ray dose 1.3 Teradaltons = 2.2 X 10^-12 grams . Mass of human haploid genome 10^-26 m 20 Joules 220 femtograms = 2.2 X 10^-13 grams . Mass of smallest cyanobacterium 10^-25 m = femto-angstrom 2 Joules; 12 Exa-eV½ calorie 13 Gigadaltons = 2.2 X 10^-14 grams . . 10^-24 m = yoctometer 2 Megaergs 2.2 femtograms = 1.3 Gigadaltons = 2.2 X 10^-15 grams . Mass of small genome 10^-23 m 30 Quecca-Hz photon 220 attograms = 2.2 X 10^-16 grams Size of Neutrino Mass of human adenovirus 10^-22 m = pico-angstrom 2 milliJoules12 Peta-eV 13 Megadaltons = 2.2 X 10^-17 grams Size of Top Quark 3X Mass of human ribosome 10^-21 m = zeptometer 2 Kilo-ergs 2.2 attograms = 2.2 X 10^-18 grams . ½ Mass of Prokaryotic ribosome 10^-20 m kinetic Energy of flying mosquito30 Ronna-Hz photon 220 zeptograms = 2.2 X 10^-19 grams . Mass of large protein 10^-19 m = nano-angstrom 2 microJoules; 12 Tera-eVEnergy of proton in LHC 13 Kilodaltons = 2.2 X 10^-20 grams Size of Bottom Quark Mass of small protein 10^-18 m = attometer 200 nanoJoules2 ergs 1.3 Kilodaltons = 2.2 X 10^-21 grams Size of Strange Quark ½ Mass of DNA base pair 10^-17 m 20 nanoJoules30 Yotta-Hz photon 220 yoctograms = 2.2 X 10^-22 grams Size of Up Quark Mass of Higgs Boson; ⅔ Mass of caffeine molecule 10^-16 m = micro-angstrom 2 nanoJoules12 Giga-eV 13 Daltons = 2.2 X 10^-23 grams Range of Weak Force ½ Mass of water molecule 10^-15 m = femtometer 2 milli-ergs 1.3 Daltons = 2.2 X 10^-24 grams Size of proton Mass of muon or proton 10^-14 m 20 picoJoules30 Zetta-Hz photon 220 rontograms = 2.2 X 10^-25 grams Size of chlorine nucleus . 10^-13 m = milli-angstrom 12 Mega-eV3X Energy of Zetta-Hz photon 13 millidaltons = 2.2 X 10^-26 grams . Mass of Up Quark 10^-12 m = picometer 2 micro-ergsEnergy of Gamma Ray (300 EHz) photon 2.2 rontograms = 2.2 X 10^-27 grams . 2X Mass of electron 10^-11 m 20 femtoJoulesEnergy of Infra-Gamma Ray (30 EHz) photon 220 quectograms = 2.2 X 10^-28 grams Size of helium atom . 10^-10 m = Angstrom 12 Kilo-eVEnergy of Hard X-Ray (HX, 3 Exa-Hz) photon 13 microdaltons = 2.2 X 10^-29 grams Size of water molecule . 10^-9 m = nanometer 2 nano-ergsEnergy of Soft X-Ray (SX, 300 Peta-Hz) photon 2.2 quectograms = 2.2 X 10^-30 grams Size of sugar molecule . 10^-8 m 120 electron-Volts; 30 PHz photon 220 milli-quectograms = 2.2 X 10^-31 grams 1.5X Thickness of cell membrane . 10^-7 m ½ Energy of covalent bond6X Energy of Orange photon 13 nano-daltons = 2.2 X 10^-32 grams Size of transistor gate; or of small virus . 10^-6 m = micrometer 2 pico-ergs½ Energy of Green (600 Tera-Hz) photon 2.2 milli-quectograms = 2.2 X 10^-33 grams Size of largest virus or small bacterium Mass (estimated) of electron neutrino 10^-5 m Energy of Near infrared (NIR, 30 Tera-Hz) photon, or 1/4 Violet photon 220 micro-quectograms = 2.2 X 10^-34 grams Size of X chromosome or red blood cell . 10^-4 m 12 milli-eV = Landauer bit at room temp.Energy of Mid infrared (MIR, 3 Tera-Hz) photon 13 picodaltons = = 2.2 X 10^-35 grams Size of skin cell; Thickness of human hair . 10^-3 m = millimeter 2 femto-ergsEnergy of Far infrared (FIR, 300 Giga-Hz) photon 2.2 micro-quectograms = 2.2 X 10^-36 grams Size of dust mite; or of amoeba . 10^-2 m = centimeter = 3.9 mils Energy of Extremely high frequency (EHF, 30 Giga-Hz) photon 220 nano-quectograms = 2.2 X 10^-37 grams 2X Size of grain of rice; 2X Size of red ant ½ Mass of Cosmic Microwave Bckground photon 10^-1 m = decimeter 12 micro-eVEnergy of Super high frequency (SHF, 3 Giga-Hz) photon 13 femtodaltons = 2.2 X 10^-38 grams Size of potato . 10^0 m = Meter = 39.37 inches 2 atto-ergsEnergy of Ultra high frequency (UHF, 300 Mega-Hz) photon 2.2 nano-quectograms = 2.2 X 10^-39 grams Size of human . 10^1 m = Dekameter Energy of Very high frequency (VHF, 30 Mega-Hz) photon 220 pico-quectograms = 2.2 X 10^-40 grams Size of Oak tree, or of Giant Squid . 10^2 m = Hectometer = 328 feet 12 nano-eVEnergy of High frequency (HF, 3 Mega-Hz) photon 13 attodaltons = 2.2 X 10^-41 grams Height of Statue of Liberty; or of redwood tree . 10^3 m = Kilometer = 1094 yards 2 zepto-ergsEnergy of Medium frequency (MF, 300 Kilo-Hz) photon 2.2 pico-quectograms = 2.2 X 10^-42 grams Height of Angel Falls . 10^4 m Energy of Low frequency (LF, 30 Kilo-Hz) photon 2.2 X 10^-43 grams Height of Mt. Everest; Size of massive neutron star . 10^5 m = 62.1 miles 12 pico-eVEnergy of Very low frequency (VLF, 3 Kilo-Hz) photon 13 zeptodaltons = 2.2 X 10^-44 grams Length of Suez Canal; Size of Rhode Island . 10^6 m = Megameter 2 yocto-ergsEnergy of Ultra low frequency (ULF, 300 Hz) photon 2.2 femto-quectograms = 2.2 X 10^-45 grams Size of Ceres; Length of California . 10^7 m Energy of Super low frequency (SLF, 30 Hz) photon 220 atto-quectograms = 2.2 X 10^-46 grams Size of Earth; Length of Trans-Siberian railway . 10^8 m = 0.33 light-second Energy of Extremely low frequency (ELF, 3 Hz) photon 13 yoctodaltons = 2.2 X 10^-47 grams Size of Saturn . 10^9 m = Gigameter 2 ronto-ergs = 1.2 femto-eV 2.2 atto-quectograms = 2.2 X 10^-48 grams ⅔ Size of Sun . 10^10 m = 67 milli-AU 220 zepto-quectograms = 2.2 X 10^-49 grams Size of Pollux . 10^11 m = 5.5 light-minutes 12 atto-eV = 3 milli-Hz photon 13 rontodaltons = 2.2 X 10^-50 grams Size of Rigel; Distance Sun to Venus . 10^12 m = Terameter 2 quecto-ergs 2.2 zepto-quectograms = 2.2 X 10^-51 grams Size of Antares; Distance Sun to Jupiter . 10^13 m = 9.2 light-hours = 67 AU 220 yocto-quectograms = 2.2 X 10^-52 grams Distance to Sedna . 10^14 m = 92 light-hours 12 zepto-eV = 3 micro-Hz photon 13 quectodaltons = 2.2 X 10^-53 grams Size of largest known black hole . 10^15 m = Petameter = 32 milliparsecs 2 milli-quectoergs 2.2 yocto-quectograms = 2.2 X 10^-54 grams Size of Stingray Nebula . 10^16 m = 1.05 ly = 66 Kilo-AU 220 ronto-quectograms = 2.2 X 10^-55 grams Size of Ring Nebula; or of Oort Cloud 2X Mass of graviton 10^17 m = Ronna-angstrom 12 yocto-eV 13 milli-quectodaltons = 2.2 X 10^-56 grams Size of Crab Nebula . 10^18 m = Exameter = 32 parsecs 2 micro-quectoergs 2.2 ronto-quectograms = 2.2 X 10^-57 grams Size of Lagoon Nebula . 10^19 m = 1.05 Kilo-ly 220 quecto-quectograms = 2.2 X 10^-58 grams Size of Tarantula Nebula . 10^20 m = Quecca-angstrom 12 ronto-eV 13 micro-quectodaltons = 2.2 X 10^-59 grams Size of Sagittarius Dwarf galaxy . 10^21 m = Zettameter = 32 kiloparsecs 2 nano-quectoergs 2.2 quecto-quectograms = 2.2 X 10^-60 grams Size of Milky Way . 10^22 m = 1.05 Mega-ly 130 nano-quectodaltons = 2.2 X 10^-61 grams Size of NGC4889 (supergiant ellip. galaxy); ½ Distance Sol to Andromeda . 10^23 m = Kilo-Quecca-angstrom 12 quecto-eV 13 nano-quectodaltons = 2.2 X 10^-62 grams Size of Fornax cluster . 10^24 m = Yottameter = 32 Megaparsecs 2 pico-quectoergs 2.2 X 10^-63 grams Size of Virgo supercluster . 10^25 m = 1.05 Giga-ly 2.2 X 10^-64 grams Size of Pisces-Cetus Supercluster complex . 10^26 m = Mega-Quecca-angstrom 12 milliquecto-eV 13 pico-quectodaltons = 2.2 X 10^-65 grams Distance to Hubble Deep Field . 10^27 m = Ronnameter = 32 Gigaparsecs 2 femto-quectoergs 1.3 pico-quectodaltons = 2.2 X 10^-66 grams Size of Observable universe .

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