From the Small to the Big and Back Again
Copyright (©) by James Dow Allen, 2021.

The purpose of this page is to help practice the prefixes of the metric system, Using two of the fundamental equations of physics, wavelength is made to correspond to (a photon's) energy, and to mass.
     
  • 3) Kilo / milli
  • 6) Mega / micro
  • 9) Giga / nano
  • 12) Tera / pico
  • 15) Peta / femto
         
  • 18) Exa / atto
  • 21) Zetta / zepto
  • 24) Yotta / yocto
  • 27) Ronna / ronto
  • 30) Quecca / quecto

(Notes: (1) It may seem absurd to speak of photons with the extremely large or extremely small wavelengths shown here -- quecto-angstrom is a unit of length which makes no sense, let alone quecto-quecto-quecto-angstrom. These are just hypotheticals to bind the table together. (2) Dry Biomass is usually taken to be 1/5 of Biomass. (3) Precision should be treated as 1 sig-fig only.)

Distance, Size Energy of Photon (λ = L)
(Energy = E = hc / L)
Mass Equiv of Photon
(L, or wavelength of photon) (Mass = m = E / c2)


10^-100 m = quecto-quecto-quecto-angstrom 500 Kilo-QueccaQueccatons TNT equiv. 0.01 QueccaSun = 10^28 suns
. 22 Quecca-Queccagrams

10^-99 m RonnaSun = 10^27 suns
. 2.2 Yotta-Queccatonnes

10^-98 m 10^26 suns
. .

10^-97 m = ronto-quecto-quecto-angstrom 10^25 suns
. 22 Ronna-Queccagrams

10^-96 m 33 Quecca-Quecca-bbl petroleum YottaSun = 10^24 suns
. Mass of total dark matter

10^-95 5 QueccaQueccatons TNT equiv. 220 Exa-Queccatonnes = 10^23 suns
. Mass of observable universe (ordinary matter)

10^-94 m = yocto-quecto-quecto-angstrom 10^22 suns
. ½ Mass of observable universe (NASA estimate)

10^-93 m 33 Ronna-Quecca-bbl petroleum ZettaSun = 10^21 suns
. 2.2 Yotta-Queccagrams

10^-92 m 5 Ronna-Queccatons TNT equiv. 10^20 suns
. 220 Zetta-Queccagrams

10^-91 m = zepto-quecto-quecto-angstrom 22 Peta-Queccatonnes = 10^19 suns
. ½ Mass of Hercules-Corona Borealis Great Wall

10^-90 m 33 Yotta-Quecca-bbl petroleum ExaSun = 10^18 suns
. Mass of Pisces-Cetus Supercluster Complex

10^-89 m 5 Yotta-Queccatons TNT equiv. 220 Tera-Queccatonnes = 10^17 suns
. Mass of Laniakea Supercluster

10^-88 m = atto-quecto-quecto-angstrom 10^16 suns
. 22 Exa-Queccagrams

10^-87 m 33 Zetta-Quecca-bbl petroleum PetaSun = 10^15 suns
. Mass of Virgo Supercluster; or of supermassive galaxy

10^-86 m 5 Zetta-Queccatons TNT equiv. 220 Giga-Queccatonnes = 10^14 suns
. Mass of IC1101 galaxy

10^-85 m = femto-quecto-quecto-angstrom 2 Quecca-QueccaJoules 22 Peta-Queccagrams = 10^13 suns
. Mass of Galaxy Group

10^-84 m 33 Exa-Quecca-bbl petroleum TeraSun = 10^12 suns
. Mass of Milky Way galaxy

10^-83 m 5 Exa-Queccatons TNT equiv. 220 Mega-Queccatonnes = 10^11 suns
. ½ Mass of Milky Way's ordinary matter

10^-82 m = pico-quecto-quecto-angstrom 2 Ronna-QueccaJoules 10^10 suns
. ½ Mass of largest known black hole

10^-81 m 200 Yotta-QueccaJoules
33 Peta-Quecca-bbl petroleum
GigaSun = Mass of 10^9 suns
. 2.2 Tera-Queccagrams

10^-80 m 5 Peta-Queccatons TNT equiv. 220 Kilo-Queccatonnes = 10^8 suns
. 4X Mass of Sagittarius Dwarf galaxy

10^-79 m = nano-quecto-quecto-angstrom ½ Energy by merger of 2 large black holes 22 Giga-Queccagrams = 10^7 suns
. Mass of largest globular cluster

10^-78 m 2 Quecca-Quecca-ergs = 33 Tera-Quecca-bbl 2.2 Kilo-Queccatonnes = MegaSun = 10^6 suns
. Mass of Tarantula Nebula or Gould Belt

10^-77 m 5 Tera-Queccatons TNT equiv. 220 Mega-Queccagrams = 10^5 suns
. Mass of typical globular cluster

10^-76 m = micro-quecto-quecto-angstrom 2 Zetta-QueccaJoules 22 Queccatonnes = 10^4 suns
. Mass of small globular cluster

10^-75 m 2 Ronna-Quecca-ergs = 33 Giga-Quecca-bbl Kilosun = 10^3 suns
. Mass of Pleiades star cluster

10^-74 m 5 Giga-Queccatons TNT equiv. 220 Kilo-Queccagrams = 10^2 suns
. Mass of Eta Carinae A

10^-73 m = milli-quecto-quecto-angstrom 2 Exa-QueccaJoules
2X Energy of gravitational event LIGO-GW150914
22 Ronnatonnes = 10^1 suns
. Mass of Canopus

10^-72 m 2 Yotta-Quecca-ergs = 33 Mega-Quecca-bbl 2.2 Kilo-Queccagrams = 10^0 sun
. Mass of our Sun

10^-71 m 5 Mega-Queccatons TNT equiv. 30 Kilo-earths = 10^-1 sun
. Mass of red dwarf star

10^-70 m = quecto-quecto-angstrom 2 Peta-QueccaJoules
Energy of Hypernova explosion
22 Yottatonnes = 10^-2 suns
. Mass of small brown dwarf star

10^-69 m 2 Zetta-Quecca-ergs
Energy of Supernova explosion
2.2 Queccagrams = milliSun = 10^-3 suns
. Mass of Jupiter

10^-68 5 Kilo-Queccatons TNT equiv. 220 Ronnagrams = 10^-4 suns
. 2X Mass of Uranus

10^-67 = ronto-quecto-angstrom 2 Tera-QueccaJoules 22 Zettatonnes = 10^-5 suns
. 3X Mass of Earth

10^-66 m 2 Exa-Quecca-ergs
33 Quecca-bbl petroleum
microSun = 10^-6 suns
. 3X Mass of Mars

10^-65 m 5 Queccatons TNT equiv. 220 Yottagrams = 10^-7 suns
. Mass of Ganymede

10^-64 m = yocto-quecto-angstrom 2 Giga-QueccaJoules 22 Exatonnes = 10^-8 suns
. Mass of Triton; or of Earth's crust

10^-63 m 2 Peta-Quecca-ergs
33 Ronna-bbl petroleum
2.2 Yottagrams = nanoSun = 10^-9 suns
. 2X Mass of Ceres

10^-62 5 Ronnatons TNT equiv. 220 Zettagrams = 10^-10 suns
. Mass of Indian Ocean

10^-61 m = zepto-quecto-angstrom 2 Mega-QueccaJoules
556 Quecca-watthours
22 Petatonnes = 10^-11 suns
. Mass of Antarctic ice sheet; or of Asteroid 3 Juno

10^-60 m = quecto-quectometer 2 Tera-Quecca-ergs
33 Yotta-bbl petroleum
picoSun = 10^-12 suns
. ½ Mass of Earth's atmosphere

10^-59 20 Kilo-QueccaJoules; 5 Yottatons TNT equiv.
2X Energy output of Sun per year
220 Exagrams = 10^-13 suns
. Mass of Prometheus (shepherd moon of Saturn)

10^-58 = atto-quecto-angstrom 2 Kilo-QueccaJoules; 556 Ronna-watthours
orbital Energy of Earth
22 Teratonnes = 10^-14 suns
. Mass of water in Lake Baikal; Earth's Total Biomass (high estimate)

10^-57 m = ronto-quectometer 2 Giga-Quecca-ergs; 33 Zetta-bbl oil
total Energy output of Sun per week
2.2 Exagrams = femtoSun = 10^-15 suns
. Mass of water in Great Bear Lake; Earth's Total Biomass (low estimate)

10^-56 m 5 Zettatons TNT equiv.
5.6 Ronna-watthours
220 Petagrams = 10^-16 suns
. Mass of Mount Everest; ½ Dry Biomass of all plants

10^-55 = femto-quecto-angstrom 2 QueccaJoules
556 Yotta-watthours
Tablespoon of neutron star; 22 Gigatonnes = 10^-17 suns
. Mass of all Earth's DNA; ⅓ Biomass of all fungi

10^-54 m = yocto-quectometer 2 Mega-Quecca-ergs; 33 Exa-bbl oil
rotational Energy of Earth
2.2 Gigatonnes = attoSun = 10^-18 suns
. Dry Biomass of all animals = ½ Mass of annual human food produced

10^-53 m 5 Exatons TNT equiv.
5.6 Yotta-watthours
220 Teragrams = 10^-19 suns
. ½ Biomass of all humans

10^-52 m = picoquecto-angstrom 2 RonnaJoules
556 Zetta-watthours
22 Megatonnes = 10^-20 suns
. ⅓ Concrete in Three Gorges Dam

10^-51 m = zepto-quectometer 2 Kilo-Quecca-ergs
33 Peta-bbl petroleum
zeptoSun = 10^-21 suns
. ⅓ Mass of Great Pyramid

10^-50 m 5 Petatons TNT equiv.
½ total Energy output of Sun per second
220 Kilotonnes = 2.2 X 10^11 grams
. Mass of large container ship (DWT)

10^-49 m = nanoquecto-angstrom 2 YottaJoules; 556 Exa-watthours
⅓ Energy of sunlight on Earth per year
22 Kilotonnes = 2.2 X 10^10 grams
. ½ Mass of RMS Titanic

10^-48 m = atto-quectometer 2 Quecca-ergs
33 Tera-bbl petroleum
2200 Tonnes = 2.2 X 10^9 grams
. Mass of Saturn V rocket or Space Shuttle

10^-47 m 5 Teratons TNT equiv.
5.6 Exa-watthours
220 Tonnes = 2.2 X 10^8 grams
. Mass of largest blue whale

10^-46 m = microquecto-angstrom 2 ZettaJoules
556 Peta-watthours
22 Tonnes = 2.2 X 10^7 grams
. Mass of fire-truck

10^-45 m = femto-quectometer 33 Giga-bbl petroleum
Total P' Oil Consumed by world in Year 2019
2200 Kilograms = 2.2 X 10^6 grams
. Mass of giraffe

10^-44 Total annual U.S. electricity consumption
5 Gigatons TNT equiv.
220 Kilograms = 2.2 X 10^5 grams
. Mass of male tiger, antelope or giant tortoise

10^-43 m = milliquecto-angstrom 2 ExaJoules = 330 Mega-bbl
2X Krakatoa eruption
22 Kilograms = 2.2 X 10^4 grams
. Mass of male bulldog or beaver

10^-42 m = pico-quectometer Energy of Tsar Bomba (largest H-bomb) detonation
½ Energy spent annually mining Bitcoin
2.2 Kilograms = 2.2 X 10^3 grams
. Mass of swamp rabbit or chihuahua dog

10^-41 5.6 Terawatthour = 3.3 Mega-bbl
½ Energy of 8-Richter earthquake
220 grams = 2.2 X 10^2 grams
. Mass of hamster

10^-40 m = quecto-angstrom 2 PetaJoules = 500 Kilotons TNT
Energy of typical storm
22 grams = 2.2 X 10^1 grams
. Mass of field mouse

10^-39 m = nano-quectometer 3X Explosive Energy of Hiroshima bomb 2.2 grams = 2.2 X 10^0 grams
. Mass of caterpillar

10^-38 m 5.6 Giga-watthour = 3.3 Kilo-bbl
½ Energy of 6-Richter earthquake
220 milligrams = 2.2 X 10^-1 grams
. Mass of raindrop

10^-37 m = ronto-angstrom 2 TeraJoules
556 Mega-watthour
22 milligrams = 2.2 X 10^-2 grams
. Mass of grain of rice or housefly

10^-36 m = micro-quectometer 200 GigaJoules; 50 tons of TNT
food Energy consumed during human life
2.2 milligrams = 2.2 X 10^-3 grams
. Mass of sesame seed or small mosquito

10^-35 m = 10 micro-quectometer 5 tons of TNT equiv.
3.3 barrels oil equiv
220 micrograms = 2.2 X 10^-4 grams
⅔ Planck Length Mass of poppy seed, fruitfly or standard LSD dose

10^-34 m = yocto-angstrom mass-Energy of smallest theoretical black hole 22 micrograms = 2.2 X 10^-5 grams
Mass of fairyfly (smallest insect)

10^-33 m = milliquectometer 1.2 Ronna-eV = 200 MegaJoules 2.2 micrograms = 1.3 Exadaltons = 2.2 X 10^-6 grams
. ½ Mass of human ovum, or of RDA Vitamin B12

10^-32 m 20 MegaJoules = 5.6 Kilo-watthour 220 nanograms = 2.2 X 10^-7 grams
. Mass of grain of maize pollen

10^-31 m = zepto-angstrom 12 Yotta-eV = 20 Tera-ergs
½ kinetic Energy of speeding car
22 nanograms = 2.2 X 10^-8 grams
. Mass of megakaryocyte human cell

10^-30 m = quectometer 50 grams of TNT equiv. 2.2 nanograms = 1.3 Petadaltons = 2.2 X 10^-9 grams
. Mass of typical human cell

10^-29 m 20 KiloJoules = 5 Calories (5 kcal.) 130 Teradaltons = 2.2 X 10^-10 grams
. Mass of neutrophil (white blood cell)

10^-28 m = atto-angstrom 12 Zetta-eV = 20 Giga-ergs
kinetic Energy of M16 rifle bullet
22 picograms = 2.2 X 10^-11 grams
. Mass of human sperm cell; ⅓ Mass of red blood cell

10^-27 m = rontometer Strongest 'cosmic ray' ever detected
Energy of lethal X-ray dose
1.3 Teradaltons = 2.2 X 10^-12 grams
. Mass of human haploid genome

10^-26 m 20 Joules 220 femtograms = 2.2 X 10^-13 grams
. Mass of smallest cyanobacterium

10^-25 m = femto-angstrom 2 Joules; 12 Exa-eV
½ calorie
13 Gigadaltons = 2.2 X 10^-14 grams
. .

10^-24 m = yoctometer 2 Megaergs 2.2 femtograms = 1.3 Gigadaltons = 2.2 X 10^-15 grams
. Mass of small genome

10^-23 m 30 Quecca-Hz photon 220 attograms = 2.2 X 10^-16 grams
Size of Neutrino Mass of human adenovirus

10^-22 m = pico-angstrom 2 milliJoules
12 Peta-eV
13 Megadaltons = 2.2 X 10^-17 grams
Size of Top Quark 3X Mass of human ribosome

10^-21 m = zeptometer 2 Kilo-ergs 2.2 attograms = 2.2 X 10^-18 grams
. ½ Mass of Prokaryotic ribosome

10^-20 m kinetic Energy of flying mosquito
30 Ronna-Hz photon
220 zeptograms = 2.2 X 10^-19 grams
. Mass of large protein

10^-19 m = nano-angstrom 2 microJoules; 12 Tera-eV
Energy of proton in LHC
13 Kilodaltons = 2.2 X 10^-20 grams
Size of Bottom Quark Mass of small protein

10^-18 m = attometer 200 nanoJoules
2 ergs
1.3 Kilodaltons = 2.2 X 10^-21 grams
Size of Strange Quark ½ Mass of DNA base pair

10^-17 m 20 nanoJoules
30 Yotta-Hz photon
220 yoctograms = 2.2 X 10^-22 grams
Size of Up Quark Mass of Higgs Boson; ⅔ Mass of caffeine molecule

10^-16 m = micro-angstrom 2 nanoJoules
12 Giga-eV
13 Daltons = 2.2 X 10^-23 grams
Range of Weak Force ½ Mass of water molecule

10^-15 m = femtometer 2 milli-ergs 1.3 Daltons = 2.2 X 10^-24 grams
Size of proton Mass of muon or proton

10^-14 m 20 picoJoules
30 Zetta-Hz photon
220 rontograms = 2.2 X 10^-25 grams
Size of chlorine nucleus .

10^-13 m = milli-angstrom 12 Mega-eV
3X Energy of Zetta-Hz photon
13 millidaltons = 2.2 X 10^-26 grams
. Mass of Up Quark

10^-12 m = picometer 2 micro-ergs
Energy of Gamma Ray (300 EHz) photon
2.2 rontograms = 2.2 X 10^-27 grams
. 2X Mass of electron

10^-11 m 20 femtoJoules
Energy of Infra-Gamma Ray (30 EHz) photon
220 quectograms = 2.2 X 10^-28 grams
Size of helium atom .

10^-10 m = Angstrom 12 Kilo-eV
Energy of Hard X-Ray (HX, 3 Exa-Hz) photon
13 microdaltons = 2.2 X 10^-29 grams
Size of water molecule .

10^-9 m = nanometer 2 nano-ergs
Energy of Soft X-Ray (SX, 300 Peta-Hz) photon
2.2 quectograms = 2.2 X 10^-30 grams
Size of sugar molecule .

10^-8 m 120 electron-Volts; 30 PHz photon 220 milli-quectograms = 2.2 X 10^-31 grams
1.5X Thickness of cell membrane .

10^-7 m ½ Energy of covalent bond
6X Energy of Orange photon
13 nano-daltons = 2.2 X 10^-32 grams
Size of transistor gate; or of small virus .

10^-6 m = micrometer 2 pico-ergs
½ Energy of Green (600 Tera-Hz) photon
2.2 milli-quectograms = 2.2 X 10^-33 grams
Size of largest virus or small bacterium Mass (estimated) of electron neutrino

10^-5 m Energy of Near infrared (NIR, 30 Tera-Hz) photon, or of hydrogen bond 220 micro-quectograms = 2.2 X 10^-34 grams
Size of X chromosome or red blood cell .

10^-4 m 12 milli-eV = Landauer bit at room temp.
Energy of Mid infrared (MIR, 3 Tera-Hz) photon
13 picodaltons = = 2.2 X 10^-35 grams
Size of skin cell; Thickness of human hair .

10^-3 m = millimeter 2 femto-ergs
Energy of Far infrared (FIR, 300 Giga-Hz) photon
2.2 micro-quectograms = 2.2 X 10^-36 grams
Size of dust mite; or of amoeba .

10^-2 m = centimeter = 3.9 mils Energy of Extremely high frequency (EHF, 30 Giga-Hz) photon 220 nano-quectograms = 2.2 X 10^-37 grams
2X Size of grain of rice; 2X Size of red ant ½ Mass of Cosmic Microwave Background photon

10^-1 m = decimeter 12 micro-eV
Energy of Super high frequency (SHF, 3 Giga-Hz) photon
13 femtodaltons = 2.2 X 10^-38 grams
Size of potato .

10^0 m = Meter = 39.37 inches 2 atto-ergs
Energy of Ultra high frequency (UHF, 300 Mega-Hz) photon
2.2 nano-quectograms = 2.2 X 10^-39 grams
Size of human .

10^1 m = Dekameter Energy of Very high frequency (VHF, 30 Mega-Hz) photon 220 pico-quectograms = 2.2 X 10^-40 grams
Size of Oak tree, or of Giant Squid .

10^2 m = Hectometer = 328 feet 12 nano-eV
Energy of High frequency (HF, 3 Mega-Hz) photon
13 attodaltons = 2.2 X 10^-41 grams
Height of Statue of Liberty; or of redwood tree .

10^3 m = Kilometer = 1094 yards 2 zepto-ergs
Energy of Medium frequency (MF, 300 Kilo-Hz) photon
2.2 pico-quectograms = 2.2 X 10^-42 grams
Height of Angel Falls .

10^4 m Energy of Low frequency (LF, 30 Kilo-Hz) photon 2.2 X 10^-43 grams
Height of Mt. Everest; Size of massive neutron star .

10^5 m = 62.1 miles 12 pico-eV
Energy of Very low frequency (VLF, 3 Kilo-Hz) photon
13 zeptodaltons = 2.2 X 10^-44 grams
Length of Suez Canal; Size of Rhode Island .

10^6 m = Megameter 2 yocto-ergs
Energy of Ultra low frequency (ULF, 300 Hz) photon
2.2 femto-quectograms = 2.2 X 10^-45 grams
Size of Ceres; Length of California .

10^7 m Energy of Super low frequency (SLF, 30 Hz) photon 220 atto-quectograms = 2.2 X 10^-46 grams
Size of Earth; Length of Trans-Siberian railway .

10^8 m = 0.33 light-second Energy of Extremely low frequency (ELF, 3 Hz) photon 13 yoctodaltons = 2.2 X 10^-47 grams
Size of Saturn .

10^9 m = Gigameter 2 ronto-ergs = 1.2 femto-eV 2.2 atto-quectograms = 2.2 X 10^-48 grams
⅔ Size of Sun .

10^10 m = 67 milli-AU 220 zepto-quectograms = 2.2 X 10^-49 grams
Size of Pollux .

10^11 m = 5.5 light-minutes 12 atto-eV = 3 milli-Hz photon 13 rontodaltons = 2.2 X 10^-50 grams
Size of Rigel; Distance Sun to Venus .

10^12 m = Terameter 2 quecto-ergs 2.2 zepto-quectograms = 2.2 X 10^-51 grams
Size of Antares; Distance Sun to Jupiter .

10^13 m = 9.2 light-hours = 67 AU 220 yocto-quectograms = 2.2 X 10^-52 grams
Distance to Sedna .

10^14 m = 92 light-hours 12 zepto-eV = 3 micro-Hz photon 13 quectodaltons = 2.2 X 10^-53 grams
Size of largest known black hole .

10^15 m = Petameter = 32 milliparsecs 2 milli-quectoergs 2.2 yocto-quectograms = 2.2 X 10^-54 grams
Size of Stingray Nebula .

10^16 m = 1.05 ly = 66 Kilo-AU 220 ronto-quectograms = 2.2 X 10^-55 grams
Size of Ring Nebula; or of Oort Cloud 2X Mass of graviton

10^17 m = Ronna-angstrom 12 yocto-eV 13 milli-quectodaltons = 2.2 X 10^-56 grams
Size of Crab Nebula .

10^18 m = Exameter = 32 parsecs 2 micro-quectoergs 2.2 ronto-quectograms = 2.2 X 10^-57 grams
Size of Lagoon Nebula .

10^19 m = 1.05 Kilo-ly 220 quecto-quectograms = 2.2 X 10^-58 grams
Size of Tarantula Nebula .

10^20 m = Quecca-angstrom 12 ronto-eV 13 micro-quectodaltons = 2.2 X 10^-59 grams
Size of Sagittarius Dwarf galaxy .

10^21 m = Zettameter = 32 kiloparsecs 2 nano-quectoergs 2.2 quecto-quectograms = 2.2 X 10^-60 grams
Size of Milky Way .

10^22 m = 1.05 Mega-ly 130 nano-quectodaltons = 2.2 X 10^-61 grams
Size of NGC4889 (supergiant ellip. galaxy); ½ Distance Sol to Andromeda .

10^23 m = Kilo-Quecca-angstrom 12 quecto-eV 13 nano-quectodaltons = 2.2 X 10^-62 grams
Size of Fornax cluster .

10^24 m = Yottameter = 32 Megaparsecs 2 pico-quectoergs 2.2 X 10^-63 grams
Size of Virgo supercluster .

10^25 m = 1.05 Giga-ly 2.2 X 10^-64 grams
Size of Pisces-Cetus Supercluster complex .

10^26 m = Mega-Quecca-angstrom 12 milliquecto-eV 13 pico-quectodaltons = 2.2 X 10^-65 grams
Distance to Hubble Deep Field .

10^27 m = Ronnameter = 32 Gigaparsecs 2 femto-quectoergs 1.3 pico-quectodaltons = 2.2 X 10^-66 grams
Size of Observable universe .

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